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IMMIGRANT


   The majority of the data on this web site was extracted from the computerized version of the now sold out 1991 book, THE AMERICAN ADDLEMANS German Immigrants to Philadelphia. For more information on this book, please link to the Addleman Book section in the Table of Contents on the home page. The research in the book focused upon two Addleman lines. The first was that of German immigrant JOHN MICHAEL ADDLEMAN, who came to Philadelphia in 1752. The second was that of DANIEL ADDLEMAN, who apparently was in American prior to 1752 and lived in Maryland and Loudoun County, Virginia. Several of Daniel Addleman's children migrated to southwestern Pennsylvania and lived in Greene County. For more information on Daniel Addleman, please link to http://danaddleman.bobaddleman.com.


GERMANY


   JOHANN MICHEL ADELMANN was born 15 December 1723 in the village of Sonderreit (Wertheim-Sonderriet, 1 Jan 1752), Wertheim County, Löwenstein-Wertheim (Baden Württemberg, 1752), to Johann Martin Adelmann and his wife Margaretta. The godfather for young Johann Michel was Johann Michel Dostman, the village mayor of Nassig. He was baptized the same day on 15 December 1723. The baptism was performed and recorded in the Nassig Church. Johann Michel Adelmann was the seventh child and the fourth son born to his parents. This information was taken from the baptismal record, the religious letter of introduction or passport and the request for manumission.

   At the age of twenty-nine, Johann Michel Adelmann decided to emigrate to Pennsylvania. He was single, poor and a vassal of Prince Carl (Thomas) of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (1735) -- a Catholic ruler . His father petitioned the prince for his release from "villeinage" on 19 May 1752. He was given permission to leave by the Royal Löwenstein-Wertheim government after paying a tax of 1 gulden 30 kreuzers. Martin Adelmann also had borrowed 30 guldens (florens) to give to his son for the voyage.

   Johann Michel Adelmann departed Sonderreit and asked for a baptismal statement and a letter of introduction on 24 May 1752 from his Protestant Pastor, Johann Henning. He then joined a group in Nassig (presumably headed for Wertheim) which included his godfather's two children -- Johann Martin Dostman and his sister. He ultimately departed Rotterdam with Captain Reuben Honor on the Ship Phoenix. and arrived in Philadelphia on 22 November 1752.

   "The designation 'honorable' which Pastor Henning used in the birth/baptismal certificate issued on 24 May 1752 is a stock term used widely at that time to distinguish the bourgeoisie and peasantry of good reputation. In the original German, this designation was eith der ehrsame or der ehrbare followed by the name. This meant that he was an upright man who was loyal to the sovereign. The parish records of Sachsenhausen do not contain a copy of the birth/baptismal certificate of 1752."

   We don't have valid information on Hans Michael's wife. Her name may have been Mary Reese. "He was going with a girl by the name of Mary Reese (Ries)." German researcher Erich Langguth wrote in 1991:

"A passenger roster of the Phoenix (1752, Nov 2), much to my surprise, also lists a Johannes Riess, although he is not found in the earlier publications of my father, Otto Langguth, and of Dr. Don Yoder. . . . And this surname Ries actually still exists today in Vockenrot, a neighboring village to Nassig." [A later report was less optimistic.] ". . . I checked for her in Sachsenhausen/Vockenrot church records, but unfortunately there was no one named Maria Riess among the RIESS families listed there. Nor was there any reference to the Johannes Riess who left on the Phoenix (2 Nov 1752). I know that there was a branch of the RIESS family in Höhefeld southeast of Wertheim that is also descended from the Sachsenhausen line, as a result of someone's marrying into that town around 1700. The Höhefeld entries are in the church books of Niklashausen/Tauber. So there is hope that a check of these church records might turn up the emigration you are seeking."



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WERTHEIM COUNTY ADELMANNS


   The County of Wertheim is in the center of West Germany (1990) and can be easily identified by three rivers: East of the Rhine and where the Main and Tauber converge. "The County of Wertheim, situated in the center of Franconia, at the confluence of the Tauber and Main Rivers, with the city of Wertheim as its capital, belonged to the Circle of Franconia ("Fränkischer Reichskreis"). . . . The Wertheim-territory in the border area between the two ecclesiastical principalities of Mainz and Würzburg has since the Middle-ages the name 'County of Wertheim' (till 1806), but it wasn't a Principality itself." The County of Wertheim has evolved through a variety of states and rulers. In the 10th century when the dukes were in control, it was known as the Duchy of Franconia. The last Count of Wertheim was Michael III, who died in 1556. Dr. Otto Langguth described it this way, "The County of Wertheim lay between the Dioceses of Wurzburg and Mainz -- a tiny Protestant State between mighty Catholic powers -- and belonged to the Circle of Franconia. After the line of the old Counts of Wertheim became extinct, the principal part of the County, following an interregnum under a Count of Stolberg-Konigstein, finally came into the sole possession of the House of the Counts of Löwenstein, an older branch of the Wittelbachs, the direct descendants of Frederick the Victorious of the Palatinate. Later on, the princes again established their control when Catholic Count Maximilian Carl was made a prince, ca 1711. Finally, the County of Wertheim was divided between two states (Bavaria & Baden) when Napoleon conquered Germany in 1806.

   In a book entitled Wertheim im Grossherzogtum Baden, Hermann Ehmer wrote: "Wertheim was the capital of a little county up until the year 1806. From the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 it has been ruled by the Counts and Princes of Lowenstein-Wertheim, a family which had split itself into a Catholic and a Protestant branch. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806 when Napoleon founded the Confederation of the Rhine. German princes were also allied in this confederation. Napoleon transferred the smaller territories of Germany to these confederates. It was in this manner that the northern section of the county of Wertheim became a part of the Principality of Aschaffenburg and later of the Kingdom of Bavaria, while that section containing Wertheim and lying south of the Main River became a part of the Grand Duchy of Baden. Ultimately the City of Wertheim became a part of Baden-Württemberg (1952).

   Religion played an important function for the inhabitants of the County of Wertheim. In 1611, the four sons of Ludwig III, Count of Löwenstein, became co-regents of the County of Wertheim and other properties. Eventually only two of these brothers had heirs and two branches of the family were formed -- Protestant and Catholic. The capital in the county was the Lutheran city of Wertheim. "A Catholic had as hard a time acquiring the right of citizenship as did a member of the Reformed Church. Also, at least in the City, the Jews cound not spread unrestricted, for the City had an agreement with the government, that it did not need to put up with more than four families of Jews. Reports state that most of "the inhabitants in the city and county of Wertheim were Protestants since the Reformation in the early 16th century."

   Otto Langguth also described many years of struggle for those living in and around Wertheim. "Before the Thirty Years War there had been a cruel twenty-year feud with Wurzburg, the ancient enemy of Wertheim. Shortly after the Thirty Years War, the troops of the Most Christian King ravaged the lands on the Main and the Neckar. . . . But friend and foe were more than all else equally dangerous to the peasants. Each demanded provisions or money, or both, and wrought mischief on the distressed population. The peasants were heavily taxed and were subject to a multitude of fees for ordinary daily events. One also had to pay fees to apprentice in a trade, if he was so fortunate, as well as for emigrating. Otto Langguth wrote, "Under the oppressive burdens we have not yet named vassalage. This continued a long time in the county, even in the city. Whoever wanted to become a burgher, could not as a rule do so without becoming vassal to the lords of the land. Whoever therefore immigrated into Wertheim, was received into vassalage; whoever emigrated, received manumission, or was manumitted, in return for a certain payment." Of course, there always were the people who ran away in the night and didn't pay any fees at all.


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NASSIG ADELMANNS

Generation E: [JÖRG ADELMANN-E (ca 1549)] JÖRG (GEORG) ADELMANN, b ca 1549 (Nassig), L (Nassig), limited rights, bur 2 May 1618 (Nassig); m1 MARGARETHA (bur 13 Nov 1596, Nassig), m2 Barbara HOFRICHTER (b (Vockenrot), bur 13 May 1615 (Nassig)) 12 Feb 1605 (Nassig), double wedding with son Alexander in Nassig), Children:

1M   ALEXANDER, b ca 1575


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Generation D: [ALEXANDER-D (ca 1575), JÖRG ADELMANN-E (ca 1549)] ALEXANDER ADELMANN, b ca 1575, son of Jörg Adelmann (ca 1549), L (Nassig), limited rights, d >1627; m APOLLONIA (widow of George Günzer in Nassig) 12 Feb 1605 (Nassig), double wedding with father Jörg, Children:

1M   JOHANNES, bapt 10 Dec 1605

2M   VEIT, bapt 13 Oct 1607 (Nassig)

3M   LEONHARD/LINHART, bapt 3 Sep 1610, bur 22 Jan 1611

4F   ANNA, bapt 28 Feb 1613

5M   JACOB, bapt 24 Jul 1616


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Generation C: [VEIT-C (1607), ALEXANDER-D (ca 1575), JÖRG ADELMANN-E (ca 1549)] VEIT ADELMANN, bapt 13 Oct 1607 (Nassig), son of Alexander (ca 1575), "widower and burgher here, age 70 3/4 years," d 17 June 1678 (age 70 3/4 years), "Buried the 11th of March in the year 1678," (Nassig); married DOROTHEA (b circa 1622), age, 55 (?) years, buried 11 March 1678), ca 1643/5. Children:

1F   MARGARETHA, b ca 1642 (Nassig), d 6 Sep 1706 (Sonderriet), bur 8 Sep 1706 (Nassig); m JOHANNES ("HANS") ADELMANN (b ca 1643, son of Johannes/Hans Adelmann, Mayor (1655/64 Sonderriet), d 7 Nov 1706 (Wertheim), age 63 years) 16 May 1671

2M   JOHANN SEBASTIAN, (I) b ca 1648 (Nassig)

"The Veit ADELMANN buried 17 July 1678 had reached the age of 70 3/4 years, a considerable life span for those days, especially when you consider that the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) fell in this period, which caused extraordinarily high losses among the population from the plague and epidemics. The age of Veit A. Given in the death record, which I indicated in my letter of 11 Jan 90, is now fully confirmed by the baptismal record.

"The relatively rare first name Alexander for the father of Veit is very interesting. From another case among the Wertheim bourgeoisie I know that in those days they said "Sander" or "Sanderlein" (diminutive form) in the local dialect instead of Alexander. Since children were usually given the first name of their godfather back then, Alexander Adelmann's godfather was probably also named Alexander."


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Generation B: [YOHANN SEBASTIAN-B, VEIT-C (1607), ALEXANDER-D (ca 1575), JÖRG ADELMANN-E (ca 1549)] JOHANN SEBASTIAN ADELMANN, legitimate son of Viet Adelmann, "Hans" Sebastian Adelmann was a burgher of Sonderriet, a member of the Feldgericht of Sonderreit, "a farmer and juryman." d ("On the 7th of May, Hanss Sebastian Adelmann, burgher and member of the court in Sonderrith, died of weakness and consumption and was given a Christian burial on the 9th of this month."); married ANNA BARBARA ADELMANN (b ca 1650, legitimate daughter of Hans Adelmann (former mayor of Sonderreit , d ("Housewife Anna Barbara died of old age on 30 December 1732" (see Table 3). She lived 26 years after her husband's death.), 4 February 1673. They had four children:

1M   JOHANN SEBASTIAN, bapt. 18 June 1675, godfather Hans Kunkel (the younger), burgher of Nassig; married 16 August 1701 to Anna Barbara Spaatz, legitimate daughter of Michael Spaatz (burgher and member of the Sonderreit Feldgericht.

2F   ANNA MARIA, bapt. 24 December 1677, godmother "Anna, legitimate daughter of Heinerich Beck (burgher of Sonderreit)

3M   JOHANNES MICHAELl, bapt. 4 March 1680, godfather Michel Spatz, burgher, d 10 May 1694

4M   JOHANN MARTIN, bapt. 8 November 1682

"The possible blood relationship between Johann (Hans) Sebastian ADELMANN (I) and his wife Barbara ADELMANN cannot be determined yet. Since it turns out that Hans Sebastian (I) was born not in Sonderriet but in Nassig (Pastor Keller had not noticed this in his day), we must assume for the time being that these are two completely separate ADELMANN lines, namely the Paternal line in Nassig, the Maternal line in Sonderriet."


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Generation-A: [YOHANNES MARTIN-A (1862), YOHANN SEBASTIAN-B , VEIT-C (1607), ALEXANDER-D (ca 1575), JÖRG ADELMANN-E (ca 1549)] YOHANNES/HANS MARTIN ADELMANN was baptized 8 August 1682 and was the son of Hans Sebastian and Margaretha Adelmann. His godfather was Hans Martin Rucker, "farmer and weaver at Nassig." Martin married ANNA MARGARETHA BAUER [1690-1769] on 15 May 1708. She was the daughter of Philipp Friedrich & Maria Magdalena (JACOBI), Bauer "former townsman and skipper at Wertheim." At the age of seventy, Martin described himself as a "tenant and full burgher" and "as an old man without means [see Fig. 4]." Martin died in Sonderriet, at the age of eighty, on 25 Apr 1762. He and Margaretha had the following nine children:

1F   ANNA MARGARETHA, b Feb 1709 (Sonderriet), chr 5 February 1709 (Nassig), d 10 May 1709 "of red children's (or chicken?) pox"

2F   MARGARETHA, b Jun 1710 (Sonderriet), chr 26 Jun 1710 (Nassig)

3F   ANNA MARGARETHA, b Apr 1712 (Sonderriet), chr 22 Apr 1712 (Nassig), d 20 Aug 1743; m JOHANN MICHAEL KEMPF   (Sonderriet) 20 Aug 1743

4M   HANS JÖRG, b Apr 1714 (Sonderriet), chr 24 April 1714 (Nassig), d 11 May 1714 (tumor & weakness)

5M   HANS MARTIN, b Apr 1715 (Sonderriet), chr 5 April 1715 (Nassig),d 20 May 1718 (children's pox)

6M   JOHANN SEBASTIAN, b Oct 1719 (Sonderriet), chr 22 October 1719 (Nassig); m Maria Barbara SCHEURICH 19 Aug 1755

7F   ANNA ELIZABETHA, b Jun 1722 (Sonderriet), chr 27 June 1722 (Nassig), d 6 May 1724 (rheumatism & weakness)

8M   HANS MICHAEL, b 15 Dec 1723 (Sonderriet), chr 15 Dec 1723 (Nassig), single, emig. to Penn., 24 May 1752

9F   ELISABETHA MARGARETHA, b Apr 1726 (Sonderriet), chr 16 April 1726 (Nassig), d 25 Sep 1726 (fever & weakness)

10M   HANS PETER, b Jun 1728 (Sonderriet), chr 23 Jun 1728 (Nassig); m Elisabetha Catharina BEGERT 19 Aug 1755

"Regarding the children of Hans Martin Adelmann, I am enclosing a family group sheet for you. This shows that pastor Keller had overlooked the third child, the daughter Anna Margaretha, who was baptized on 22 April 1712, Also he gave the date of baptism for the sixth child, Johann Sebastian, as 22 August 1719, which is incorrect; it should read 22 October 1719. . . . Of his [Hans Michael Adelmann] 9 siblings, 5 died as young children (3 sisters and 2 brothers), 2 sons [brothers] established families in Sonderriet and also 1 daughter [sister] married a man from there (Johann Michael Kempf). The latter sister is probably identical to the child Anna Margaretha baptized 22 April 1712. The only one not accounted for is the daughter [sister] Margaretha, who was baptized 26 June 1710. . . .As far as the evidence shows, none of the siblings emigrated to America. However, I can now verify the emigration of a first cousin of Hans Michael Adelmann, namely Heinrich HAAG 1754. "As you can see . . . Hans Michael A.'s maternal grandmother was Maria Magdalena Bauer née JACOBI. The latter's second marriage was to the smith, Johannes HAAG (II), in Nassig. His children from his first marriage to Catharina Kunckel -- including son Johann Peter HAAG -- were considered the real children of their stepmother Maria Magdalena née JACOBI under German law of that time, i.e., the same as children of her own from that marriage. So according to this, the daughter Anna Margaretha Bauer, who was married to Hans Martin ADELMANN, and the smith Johann Peter HAAG can be regarded as 'siblings.' Thus the two emigrants Hans Michael ADELMANN (1725) and Heinrich HAAG (1754) were 'real' cousins in the prevalent view of that day. . . . Heinrich HAAG (bapt. 27 February 1711 in Nassig), whose baptismal entry contains the marginal note: "moved to America 1754." [He was the son of Johann Peter Haag who married first Catharina Schlessman in 1703 and second, Maria Magdalena Bauer née JACOBI.] Johann Peter Haag is the son of Johannes Hagg (II) who married Catharina Kunckel. . . Neither my father nor Dr. Don Yoder knew of Heinrich HAAG as an emigrant. It remains to be clarified whether he left with the consent of the rulers of the Earldom of Wertheim or secretly.

"Since Hans Martin Adelmann had full community rights in Sonderriet, it can be assumed that he was an independent farmer. However not all inhabitants of the town were 'full farmers' [owned full-sized farms]. I have found that in the town of Höhefeld, there were many more Häcker or small-scale farmers; these farmers usually sought day labor and farmed only a relatively small plot of land of their own. It was also informative to note how many or how few livestock the individuals owned (horses, oxen or cows).

"So far there is no information of this type available for Sonderriet. But we could try to find out from the general land register of the earldom from the period around 1710 what property Hans Martin Adelmann had when he set up his own household. . . . "


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SONDERRIET


The primary location of the paternal Adelmann line was in Nassig and the primary location of the maternal Adelmann line was in Sonderriet. Two Adelmann siblings from the paternal line (Margaretha Adelmann (Nassig) and Joh. Sebastian Adelmann (Nassig)) married two siblings of the maternal line (Johannes Adelmann (Sonderriet) and Barbara Adelmann (Sonderriet). The identification of the descendants of the two communities was somewhat confused by that fact that both attended church in Nassig. (The maternal line will be identified with a numeral following the alphabetic letter.)


Generation D1   [PETER ADELMANN-D1] PETER ADELMANN, L (Sonderriet with limited rights), d probably 1643/44; m MARGARETHA SCHLESSMANN (dau of Andreas/Endress Schlessmann of Sonderriet, d probably 1635) 20 Aug 1594 (Nassig).

"The parents . . . had married only a good quarter year before the birth/baptism of the child, i.e. on 20 August 1594. According to the general interpretation of the law at that time, the fact that the child came into the world so soon after the wedding was a punishable moral offense. The church book entry contains a remark to that effect, but its exact wording (in Latin) cannot be deciphered clearly enough."

Children:

1M   YOHANNES ADELMANN, bapt 3 Dec 1594, L 1635 (Wertheim); m BRIGITTA (d 3 May 1635 (Wertheim)) ca 1622/23, children (Johannes bapt 18 May 1624; Barbara, bapt 23 Apr 1635 (Wertheim)) 4 Feb 1673 (Nassig))

[It is theorized that the two different records found in Wertheim and Nassig may be about the same JOHANNES ADELMANN. If this is true, his marriages were: m1 BRIGITTA (ca 1622/23), m2 AGNES (ca 1635/40) and m3 ANNA (1 Jun 1655).]


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Generation C1: [JOHANNES-C1 (ca 1594), PETER ADELMANN-D1] JOHANNES/HANS ADELMANN, b ca 1594 (Sonderriet), O (1655/64 Mayor in Sonderriet), d March 1664, bur 29 Mar 1664 (Nassig); m1; m2 AGNES (b ca 1612/13 (Sonderriet), d early Jan 1655 (Sonderriet), bur 5 Jan 1655 (Nassig); m3 ANNA (widow of Michael Rücker (Vockenrot) 12 Jun 1655 (Nassig), Children:

1F   CHRISTINA, b ca 1640/41 (Sonnriet), d 25 Jan 1720 (age, 78 years); m MICHAEL SCHEURICH (linen weaver, son of Michel Scheirig) 24 Jan 1665

2M   HANS JACOB, b ca 1642 (20 yrs. old in summer 1663) (Sonnried), Military (Wertheim Co., Banished 1676 & returned 1680; m   MAGDALENA HÄUSLEIN (dau of Niclass Häuslein, full burgher & tailor (Remlingen)) 1 Nov 1664 (Nassig)

3M   JOHANNES/HANS b ca 1643 (Sonnried), d 7 Nov 1706 (Wertheim -- age 63 yrs); m MARGARETHA ADELMANN (dau of Veit Adelmann of Nassig) 16 MAY 1671 (Nassig)

4F   BARBARA, b ca 1650 (Sonnried), d 30 Dec 1732 (Sonderriet); m JOH. SEBASTIAN ADELMANN (son of Veit Adelmann, full burgher of Nassig)


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EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY EMIGRANTS


   Four Adelmann names were identified in the original "Langguth List of Wertheimer Emigrants to Colonial America" and were later reprinted in the previously mentioned Don Yoder book. (1) Wilhelm Adelmann departed with a group of Wertheimers in 1750. Erich Langguth wrote, "Note that the Andreas Oberdorff, who with Hans Andreas Kachel, Andreas Oetzel, John Simon Oberdorff, Wilhelm Adelmann, and other possible Wertheimers, arrived on the Ship Priscilla, September 12, 1750 (Hinke, I, 444), was also probably a Wertheimer emigrant." (2) Barbara Adelmann's father, Martin Adelmann from Höhefeld, asked on 27 May 1754 that his unmarried daughter be able to emigrate without paying the regular manumission fee. "The Barbara Adelmann who em igrated from Höhefeld to America in 1754 because of great poverty was not the sister of Hans Michael Adelmann of Sonderriet." "She is to be allowed to leave without fees, "that we may be rid of this worthless girl. She is as poor as a beggar, and dissolute besides. We should like to be rid of her." (3) Michel Adelmann's father, Martin Adelmann from Sonderrieth, asked that his unmarried son be able to emigrate on 19 May 1752. "His father, Martin Adelmann, wants to allow him to go to Pennsylvania. He has borrowed 30 florins for the journey and expenses // HANS MICHAEL ADELMANN, Ship Phoenix, November 22, 1752 (Hinke I, 507), with other Wertheimers." (4) Sebastian Adelmann's (from Sonderrieth) daughter, (no first name) Adelmann, inheritance was noted on 5 July 1773. "Sebastian Adelmann's daughter of Sonderrieth, now in New England, has fallen heir to a parental inheritance of 100 florins. From the money, 5 florins are to be collected for manumission and 20% supplemental tax, in case the money is taken out of the country." A fifth Adelman (Sonderrieth) emigrant departed in 1832 but obviously, he or she was a nineteenth-century emigrant.

   Other than the emigrant Hans Michel Adelmann, we haven't been able to establish a family relationship to any of the other Adelmann emigrants. Erich Langguth, son of Otto Langguth, wrote in a 1984 letter:

   "So far, the only emigrants whose place of origin has been determined are Hans Michael Adelmann, who emigrated from Sonderriet in 1752, and Barbara Adelmann, who emigrated from Höhefeld in 1754. Sondderriet is a village west of the City of Wertheim, today, incorporated as Wertheim-Sonderriet. Höhefeld, also a village, you will find on the map southeast of Wertheim. It is also incorporated as Wertheim-Höhefeld. The fact that the father of both emigrants was named Martin Adelmann does not necessarily mean they are directly related, as you yourself indicated with a question mark. There are and were many Adelmann families in and around Wertheim. Martin was also a very common given name in the 18th century. On the other hand, we don't yet know the town of origin for Wilhelm Adelman, who emigrated in 1750 on the ship Priscilla. However, we can pinpoint several of those who traveled with him on the Priscilla: Hans Andreas Kachel from Dertingen, Simon Schurger (Schierher) from Dertingen, Hans Michael Wiessner and Andreas Oetzel from Dietenhan, Wendel Leimeister (Lawmeister) from Niklashausen -- all towns near Wertheim. The three passengers Oberdorf (Caspar, Andreas, and Johann Simon) were probably natives of the Wertheim area as well. In view of this, it can be assumed that Wilhelm Adelman also came from here."

   ". . . I can now verify the emigration of a first cousin of Hans Michael Adelmann, namely Heinrich HAAG 1754. . . . Hans Michael A.'s maternal grandmother was Maria Magdalena Bauer née JACOBI. The latter's second marriage was to the smith HAAG -- were considered the real children of their stepmother Maria Magdalena née JACOBI under German law of that time, i.e., the same as children of her own from that marriage. So according to this, the daughter Anna Margaretha BAUER, who wasJohannes HAAG (II) in Nassig. His children from his first marriage to Catharina Kunckel -- including son Johann Peter married to Hans Martin ADELMANN, and the smith Johann Peter HAAG can be regarded as 'siblings. Thus the two emigrants Hans Michael ADELMANN (1752) and Heinrich HAAG (1754) were 'real' cousins in the prevalent view of that day ["Neither my father nor Dr. Don Yoder knew of Henrich HAAG as an emigrant. It remains to be clarified whether he left with the consent

of the rulers of the Earldom of Wertheim or secretly."]."


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HANS MICHAEL ADELMANN


   JOHANN MICHEL ADELMANN was born 15 December 1723 in the village of Sonderreit (Wertheim-Sonderriet, 1 Jan 1972), Wertheim County, Löwenstein-Wertheim (Baden Württem- berg, 1952), to Johann Martin Adelmann and his wife Margaretta. The godfather for young Johann Michel was Johann Michel Dostman, the village mayor of Nassig. He was baptized the same day on 15 Decem- ber 1723. The baptism was performed and recorded in the Nassig Church. Johann Michel Adelmann was the seventh child and the fourth son born to his parents. This information was taken from the baptismal record, the religious letter of introduction or passport (see Fig. 2-3), and the request for manumission (see Fig. 4).

   At the age of twenty-nine, Johann Michel Adelmann decided to emigrate to Pennsylvania. He was single, poor and a vassal of Prince Carl (Thomas) of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (1735) -- a Catholic ruler . His father petitioned the prince for his release from "villeinage" on 19 May 1752 (see Fig. 4). He was given permission to leave by the Royal Löwenstein-Wertheim government after paying a tax of 1 gulden 30 kreuzers. Martin Adelmann also had borrowed 30 guldens (florens) to give to his son for the voyage.

   Johann Michel Adelmann departed Sonderreit and asked for a baptismal statement and a letter of introduction (see Fig. 3) on 24 May 1752 from his Protestant Pastor, Johann Henning. He then joined a group in Nassig (presumably headed for Wertheim) which included his godfather's two children -- Johann Martin Dostman and his sister. He ultimately departed Rotterdam with Captain Reuben Honor on the Ship Phoenix. and arrived in Philadelphia on 22 November 1752.

   "The designation 'honorable' which Pastor Henning used in the birth/baptismal certificate issued on 24 May 1752 is a stock term used widely at that time to distinguish the bourgeoisie and peasantry of good reputation. In the original German, this designation was eith der ehrsame or der ehrbare followed by "the name. This meant that he was an upright man who was loyal to the sovereign. The parish records of Sachsenhausen do no contain a copy of the birth/baptismal certificate of 1752."

   We don't have valid information on Hans Michael's wife. Her name may have been Mary Reese. "He was going with a girl by the name of Mary Reese (Ries)."

"A passenger roster of the Phoenix (1752, Nov 2), much to my surprise, also lists a Johannes Riess, although he is not found in the earlier publications of my father, Otto Langguth, and of Dr. Don Yoder. . . . And this surname Ries actually still exists today in Vockenrot, a neighboring village to Nassig." [A later report was less optimistic.] ". . . I checked for her in Sachsenhausen/Vockenrot church records, but unfortunately there was no one named Maria Riess among the RIESS families listed there. Nor was there any reference to the Johannes Riess who left on the Phoenix (2 Nov 1752). I know that there was a branch of the RIESS family in Höhefeld southeast of Wertheim that is also descended from the Sachsenhausen line, as a result of someone's marrying into that town around 1700. The Höhefeld entries are in the church books of Niklashausen/Tauber. So there is hope that a check of these church records might turn up the emigration you are seeking."


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DISCUSSION


   The Wertheim County Adelmann surname was alternately spelled with one 'n' or two. It was also phonetically spelled a few times in the early church records as 'Attelman.' "This first name was very common at that time. Almost every other person had the name 'Hans or Johann.' It was customary that the 'Gevatter,' nowadays 'Pate' (Godfather) gave his own first name to the child in baptism, as here 'Hans Michael' (in the text we find Michel)." Michael was alternately spelled in the documents as 'Michel.' Johann Michel Adelman (1723) apparently went by his second name during the early portion of his life in Germany. (Many of the name variations were standardized in the text to minimize confusion.)

   German genealogical researcher Erich Langguth (son of Dr. Otto Langguth) wrote:

"Today I would like to send you as my first report a photocopy of the emigration petition of 19 May 1752, in which Martin Adelmann of Sonderriet requested the release of his son Joh. Michael Adelmann from villeinage. With the permission, which was granted on the same day, Johann Michael Adelmann was released from the sovereignty of the Earldom, but he had to pay a fee of 1 gulden 30 kreuzer to the royal treasury."

   Like Dr. Otto Langguth, the original researcher of this document, we also can derive much information from it. The original German application was three pages long with the 'resolution' on page four (see Figure 3). Martin Adelmann described himself as a "tenant and full burgher" in the second paragraph of this document. We know from previous comments about burghers that Martin was established and had some status in the town of Sonderreith. We can assume he had a 'lower' burgher status because Sonderreith was only a town or village a few miles from Wertheim. If he had been a burgher in Wertheim, he would have had a much higher status. It was also noted that Johann Michael Adelmann was requesting release from 'villeinage,' which is most likely similar to what Dr. Langguth described as 'vassalage.'

   It was also stated that Martin borrowed 30 guldens (or florens) to give to his son and the Manumissions document stated he also had to pay "1 gulden 30 kreuzer" for his release from villeinage. Since the exit tax was based upon property, it was to ones advantage to be single and poor. People were also considered 'property' and a husband had to pay a tax on his wife and number of children. The amount one paid was a good indication of his worth and financial status. Obviously Hans Michel Adelmann was poor but not so poor as to be considered worthless. Dr. Langguth wrote, "So from the beginning a fixed supplemental tax [Nachsteuer] was levied on the property which was taken away; for the period up to 1752, an amount of 10% was surrendered. It is interesting to note that the manumission application and resolution occurred on the same day. It also can be deduced that Hans Michel was on very good terms with his father and departed with his blessing.



Figure 4   After receiving permission to emigrate and also demonstrating to the magistrate that he didn't have any outstanding debts left behind, an emigrant went to his pastor for a statement of his birth and a letter of introduction to his future pastor. Hans Michael Adelman went to Pastor John Henning (Sonderreith & Nassig) for the documents. It was a common practice for clerics to write in both German and Latin. It can be seen that the translated baptismal certificate reveals more about Hans Michael Adelman (see Figures 2, 3). It states his full name, date (15 Dec 1723) and place of birth (Sonderreith, Wertheim, Frankenland), declares the marriage legal and Christian, states the names of the parents (Martin & Margaretta Adelman) and the name of the Godfather (Mayor John Michael Dostman - Nassig). The pastor referred to Martin Adelman as "honorable" which was simply a more formal salutation of the times.

   Erich Langguth wrote, "It is a great pity that the German original of the birth certificate for Johann Michael Adelmann no longer seems to be available, and that all you have [are] two English translations. The second part of the closing formula in Latin is doubtless manu propria = in [one's] own hand. Thus the certificate was written by Pastor Henning himself. The formula was very often abbreviated, sometimes as manu ppria. However, I still can't offer you a conclusive translation of cum cera; literally cum cera = with wax; probably this meant that the certificate was sealed with wax, i.e., it was certified."

   A smaller and more condensed version of the passport, was the baptismal record. Copies of both were sent in a letter from Joseph P. Addleman (Liberty, Indiana) to Michael Dosch (Sonderreith), on 4 May 1884. Joseph P. Addleman (Red, 1819) was an earlier family historian who corresponded twice to Germany in the hopes of finding out more about the Adelmans who remained behind. These letters were passed down to Lois Conarroe (Red) in Wayne County, Indiana. A portion of one letter stated, "We took that letter, together with the valuable likeness, and the passport of John Michael Adelman and delivered them to the pastor of Hessig [Nassig], who found the passport correct, but claimed that it would be almost impossible to find out anything further about your ancestry, because the old church books had never been registered, and the old man would not read over all the books of 150 years ago."

   It's interesting to note the former Mayor, Hans Michael Dostman (Nassig), was the godfather of Hans Michael Adelmann and that Dr. Langguth records his children emigrating at the same time. "May 24, 1752: Hans Michel Dostmann's children, all poor as beggars, want to go to Pennsylvania with some people from Sonderrieth. In the Village Mayor's Report for Nassig (1752): "Johann Michel Dostmann's son and daughter, both single, have taken nothing along; nor can they expect anything from their parents." // Perhaps Johan Martin Dostman, Ship Phoenix, November 22, 1752 (Hinke, I, 507), with other Wertheimers, since he is the only one listed in Hinke." Dr. Langguth also speculated that Jacob Dustman and Henry Dustman (Washington Co., PA) may have been related to Johan Martin Dostman. It's also possible that Johan Martin Dostman may have been named after Johan Martin Adelmann. It's possible that each father was the godfather of the other's son.

   The next group of supporting documents are from the William H. Eddleman Collection. William hired Pastor Hans Wolfgang Keller to conduct research in 1959. Pastor Keller wrote, "Enclosed I am sending you the results of my research about the name Hans Michael Adelman. My only sources for this work were two church books [1653-1720, 1715-1792] containing the records of this period. . . . [These are the] extracts from the church records of the church communities Nassig-Sonderriet [see Figure 5]. . . . I want to emphasize that the copy "is given word-for-word, including all the punctuations. Nothing was omitted. The question marks are only related to the preceding words."

   By inspecting the summary of the Adelman family of the Nassig-Sonderriet church records, it can be determined that Johann Michel Adelmann was the legitimate son of Hans Martin and Barbara Adelman and was baptized on 15 December 1723. The godfather was Johann Michael Dostmann, who was the legitimate son of Ernst Dostmann. The parents were from the village of Sonderriet. The father, Johann Martin Adelmann, was baptized on 8 November 1682 and was the son of Hans Sebastian and Barbara Adelman. His Godfather was Hans Martin Rucker, a farmer and weaver in Nassig. Martin was married on 15 May 1708 to Margaretha Bauer. Margaretha's father, Friedr. Bauer was a former Wertheim townsman and skipper. Martin died on 25 April 1762, an 80-year-old citizen of Sonderriet. Johann Sebastian Adelmann was a former farmer and juryman in Sonderreit. The father's name, 'Kurt' Adelmann, was misidentified by Pastor Keller. His name should read 'Veit' Adelmann. He married Anna Barbara Adelmann on 4 February 1673. She was the legitimate daughter of Hans Adelmann, the former mayor of Sonderriet. Barbara died of old age on 30 Dec 1732. Hans Sebastian Adelmann died on 7 May 1706 in Sonderriet. Veit Adelmann was a farmer in Sonderriet.

   In 1989, at the request of The Addleman Quarterly , German Research Club, Erich Langguth (Wertheimer Familienarchiv) researched the same church records as Pastor Keller (1959). The following information is not critical to understanding the research findings but it does add an investigative 'flavor.'

   "As I already pointed out to you in my letter of 28 July 1989, Pastor W. Keller made a major error in reading the eldest ADELMANN generation. The name of the father of Johann (Hans) Sebastian Adelmann was not Kurt but Veit [see Figure 5, item 5]. Below I will give you the marriage entry for Joh. Sebastian in the original wording [Translation of the original wording]:

   Nassig marriage book 1673:

   "Married on the 4th of February in the year of our Lord 1673, Johan Sebastianus Adelman, bachelor, legitimate son of Veit Adelman, burgher here (= in Nassig), and Barbara, legitimate daughter of the late Hans Adelman, former chief magistrate of Sonnried

   "Explanation: The pastor at the time, Pastor Lutz, often used Latin endings on the given names; therefore, he also wrote 'Johan Sebastianus' with this Latin ending (instead of the German: Johan Sebastian). Likewise, he translates the word that normally follows in our church records, junger Gesell, with the Latin juvenis; this term means that the groom was single until then, i.e., not yet married. The expression seelig [selig] after a name, as after the bride's father Hans Adelmann above, means that he is already deceased.

   "Here it should be noted that the dates in those days were almost always the date of baptism, not the date of birth. Thus in all three entries, it says getauft (baptized). Ordinarily baptisms were performed very soon after the birth in those days, so that the date of birth often coincided with the date of baptism or was the day before.

   " . . . It should be noted that the village of Sonderriet was affiliated with the church in Nassig, i.e., it had neither a church nor a cemetery of its own. This is why all the children born in Sonderriet were baptized in Nassig and all those who died in Sonderriet were buried in Nassig. Obviously the couples from Sonderriet were also married in the church in Nassig. This explains the discrepancy between the places of births and baptism etc. in the lineage chart."

   The translator for the previously mentioned 'German Research Club,' Ann C. Sherwin, commented in a letter translated on 11 January 1990: "Neither the original writer of the record [Nassig church records] nor Langguth is consistent in the use of Latin endings, and those the latter supplies in parenthesis are not always in the correct case; in any event they are irrelevant in an English translation. He was trying to be helpful, but I suggest you ignore them. A good translation is not literal anyway but is an accurate rendering of the information contained in the original." She also felt it was important for us to review several German words.

   "Something told me I should check further into the question of Nachbar / Einwohner / bürger -- see footnote 1 of my translation of Mr. Langguth's last letter. After further study of Haberkern and Wallach's Hilfswörterbuch für Historiker and my unabridged Duden, I'm not positive that Nachbar is exactly the same as Bürger (burgher). It may be, but I can't find any place in the dictionary that comes right out and says it is. It's also possible that cities and some towns and villages use Bürger while others, especially agricultural villages, use Bauer or Nachbar, and that in both cases it indicates that the person had a higher standing including the right to vote and hold certain offices reserved for that class. In any case, it is best to keep in mind the German term used in your particular documents and don't worry about English equivalent. The system was undoubtedly different in England, so there probably is "no exact equivalent. Here are my translations of parts of the German dictionary explanations (there is more in each case):

"Nachbar - see Bauer

"Bauer - In a general sense, Bauer means farmer today. In its older, narrower sense (in which Gemeindegenosse, Dorfgenosse, Nachbar are synonyms), it refers only to the residents of a village who possess full rights, in contrast to the Häusler. (What those rights were varied from place to place.) In eastern Germany, the term Bauer was applied only to those who owned landed estates.

"Häusler - Village inhabitant who owns a small house and garden, also livestock and a certain share of the common grazing lands (the amount varied), but not a landed estate and not sufficient farmland to make a living from it; he was usually a day laborerer, either on a farm or in a trade; frequently he plied his trade independently. He was not a member of the village association until some time in the 19th century. [The explanation goes on.]

"Einwohner = resident or inhabitant today. In its older, narrower sense = Schutzverwandter (2

"Schutzverwandter - (2) (synonyms include Einwohner) resident of a town or especially of a city, who only enjoyed limited burgher rights. They were mainly those who owned no landed estate that they could bequeath to their heirs. They often owned a house on the property of a full burgher, and therefore in the villages they were often call Häusler, they often worked for their landlords or hired out as day laborers.

"Bürger - Modern meaning: citizen, person belonging to a particular nation or community. Historical definition: Member of a certain social class defined by its assets and bound by certain traditions. (These definitions were from Duden, and I'm sure the details varied depending on the place and time). In genealogy, I always translate this as "burgher" rather than "citizen" to distinguish it from "the modern concept of national citizenship.)


   "Now that I've gone to the trouble of ferreting this out, I may use it as the basis of an article for the GGSA Bulletin or the German Connection."

   Erich Langguth felt it was fairly significant that Hans Martin (1682), Hans Michael's (1723) father, had married into a higher status. He wrote about this in the following:

   "The surname of Hans Martin's bride [Bauren], if you change the genitive form of the entry on that old style of writing to the nominative, was actually BAUER, as Pastor Keller indicated back then with a question mark. This marriage to a burgher's daughter of Wertheim is worthy of note, because it happened rather seldom in those days that a city girl married a man from the country. Even more significant is the fact that Margaretha Bauer was the daughter of a boatman. The boatmen of Wertheim traveled the Main and Rhine and got around in the world, so to speak. Perhaps this had a certain influence on the son Hans Michael who emigrated in 1752."

   William H. Eddleman wrote a significant paragraph to Dr. Weber where he concluded the Wertheim County Adelmann's were probably not connected to the Palatinate or the Oldenwald Edelman's. From inspection of a map, it does appear that the Oldenwald does come very close to the Wertheim County area.

   "Refer to Hans Michael Edelman [A] VIIIe: In the publication of the Pennsylvania German Folklore Society (Volume 12, 1947), Pennsylvania pioneers from the colony of Wertheim, "Michael Adelmann, Sondererreith, May 19, 1752, single. His father, Martin, wants to allow him to go to Pennsylvania. He has borrowed 30 florens for the journey and expenses." (Note the agreement between the approximate date of emigration and arrival in the ship list). Having sent an inquiry to the Evangelisches Pfarrant Nassig bei Wertheim a Main, the records clearly indicate a Hans Michael Adelman being born the son of Martin Adelman. However, the family records of this area show no connection between this family and the other families which emigrated to the United States. The Pennsylvania Folklore Society obtained this information from the work of Adolf Gerber which was published by Verlag Degner & Co., Leipzig, the heft vol. 4. Famlien Geschichlicker Wegweiser dur Stadt undt Land, edited by Dr. Friedrich Wecken, 24 pp. including reviewing parish records of 115 villages of the former Löwenstein-Wertheim. If you wish I will forward to you a copy of this family's records from the County Wertheim."

   Finally, the 1883-4 letters written by Michael Dosch (Sonderreith) answering Joseph P. Addleman (Indiana, ca 1883) have significance.

   "Your worthy letter of the 16th December, 1883 came to hand: the person, John Addleman [JOHN MARTIN ADELMAN], to whom your letter is directed died a long time ago. He was my grandfather: he was born in 1744 and died in 1814: at that time there were more living here by the name of Adelman, but none by the same Christian name. My grandfather, John Adelman had two daughters. One of these was my Mother. At the death of my grandfather, the name of Adelman here in this country died also.

   "In my Mother's family, there were three sons: the oldest yet living is 78 years old, and myself the second, 76 years old, the third died in 1872.

   " . . . I have often heard my grandfather [say] that a relative emigrated to America, but there never was any correspondence between them and us.

   " . . . In spite of all our trouble, I can not positively state whether we are relatives or not. My parents never told me anything about my ancestry. My father and grandfather [had each died] when I was 6 months old and when I was 7 years old. Only this much I know: at my grandfather's home place, there were 40 citizens in all and two or three of them were Adelmans. Today the place has 70 citizens and not one Adelman. My grandmother also was a born Adelman. Of antiquities, I can find none: pictures were not to be found in a farm house. No family piece of any kind except the beautiful name of my grandfather, which I find marked on a great many implements, thus 'HMA.'

   "Now I want to describe to you my family relations. I am 76, my wife is 67. My oldest son is 46, his wife 38: his oldest son is 8, the next 5. He has the same name as myself and is now councilman and Deacon of the church. My second son is 42 and expects to stay single. His name is George. We farm, one family altogether, and are nothing but common farmers.


" . . . I want to say in conclusion that I cannot write everything I think, the paper is too short. I cannot write what we raise, how our fields are located, about our war with France and about taxes, I will say nothing. If I could speak English and were with you, we could tell each other much, also about the beautiful name of Adelman, which I believe God Almighty has given from us to you.

   "All this I write with my own hand, but should I die, the address of my oldest son is the same.


"Michael Dosch

Sonderrieth

Wertheim on the Main."


   There clearly is a lot more to be researched and deduced about the early Adelmann's from Wertheim County, Germany. Erich Langguth concluded the following about the early Adelmannn locations in Sonderriet and Nassig.

   "I can already say that there were apparently more people named ADELMANN in Sonderriet than in Nassig. My father extracted a list of inhabitants of Sonderriet from the year 1627. According to this, there were at least eight Adelmann families at that time in this town; in addition 4 - 5 young people by this name, 17 years and older, were enumerated. The latter were considered to be of marriageable age. The married ADELMANNs were: (Se)Bastian 85 years old, Peter 70 years, Michael 54 years, Jacob 52 years, Hans 50 years, Matern 45 years, Michael 33 years, Lorenz 30 years. Regarding another Hans (28 years) it isn't completely certain whether he was married or not. The Peter Adelmann mentioned also has a son Hans age 17, so we have to proceed very carefully here in order to stay in the right line.

   "This heavy proliferation also indicates that the ADELMANN family had been settled there for a long time -- even more so in Sonderriet than in Nassig."

   Even though several American researchers (primarilly William H. Eddleman, Riley R. Eddleman, Ph.D., and Margaret Addleman Florin) have traveled several times to Wertheim County, discovery remains a slow and expensive process. It is apparent from the brief excerpts included above, that a German researcher must once again be contracted by a future Adelmann genealogist in order to clarify more about our historic German heritage.


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EMIGRANT'S VOYAGE


Several authors have described the passage down the Rhine river to Rotterdam. Dr. Otto Langguth extracted the following information from the Rosenberg Archive ("Peinliche Sachen," Fasc. 57)

   "The journey from Wertheim to Rotterdam was as a rule made by water. It must not, however, be imagined that one simply got aboard ship and went merrily down the valley. There were more than forty toll-stations to be passed; everywhere there was a delay, many times intentionally, in order to force the people to stay overnight and shell out their money. And when finally, after three or four weeks, the poor devils arrived in Rotterdam, the little money they had with them was already gone. Or they were forced to wait so long in Rotterdam that the people had quite reached the end of their cash and were ready to risk the journey across the wide ocean under any conditions. The trip to Rotterdam in 1754 cost, for every person over fourteen years of age, eight florins and 30 kreuzer; for every person under fourteen years, four florins and 15 kreuzer; for every person under four years, nothing."

   Another excerpt was reprinted in The Addleman Quarterly (1988), where Ralph Beaver Strassburger, LL.D., described a journey to Pennsylvania in the introduction of his book. "Gottlieb Mittelberger described his trip in 1750 from Germany to Philadelphia to Mr. Strassburger. He divided the trip into three phases. The first phase was down the Rhine River to Rotterdam. The second phase was from Rotterdam to Cowes, England. The third was the long ocean voyage to Philadelphia.."

   "This journey lasted from the beginning of May to the end of October, fully half a year, amid such hardships as no one is able to describe adequately with their misery." He said that the trip from Heibronn to Holland took from four to six weeks. This was because there were twenty-six custom houses on the Rhine and the ships were examined at the convenience of each customs inspector. "In the meantime the ships with the people are detained long, so that the passengers have to spend much money." He related that many had to spend their entire savings during this phase of the journey.

   "The second phase began when the ship departed Rotterdam for England. Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, was one of the ports frequented. In England there was another delay of on- to-two weeks, when the ships were waiting either to be passed through the custom house or waiting for favorable winds.

   "In describing the third phase he wrote that "the real misery [began] with the long voyage. . . even with the best wind, the voyage lasted seven weeks." He recalled much suffering during the long ocean voyage. "The passengers being packed densely, like herrings . . . . . without proper food and water, were soon subject to all sorts of diseases, such as dysentery, scurvy, typhoid and smallpox." The limited food supplies and the lack of clean drinking water were soon complicated by ocean storms and seasickness. Children were the weakest and frequently the first to die. "The misery [reached] the climax when a gale [raged] for two or three nights and days, so that every one [believed] that the ship [would] go to the bottom with all human beings on board. In such a visitation the people cry and pray most piteously."

   "When the German passengers arrived at the Port of Philadelphia, on the Delaware River, they began another wait. First, the merchants received "the lists of the freights and the agreement which the emigrants have signed with their own hand in Holland, together with the bills for their travel down the Rhine and the advances of the 'newlanders' for provisions, which they received on the "ships on account." They had to be examined by a health officer for infectious diseases. If they were found to have a disease, they were sent to the hospital on Province Island. Next they were marched down to the City Hall, where they were given their oath of allegiance to the King of England. After this they were returned to their ship.

   "Announcements were then printed in local newspapers concerning the number of immigrants that would be 'sold' [or endentured] to pay for their passage. Those who either had money or arranged to borrow it from wealthier relatives, were released after they paid for their journey. [Strassburger described the ship as a marketplace.]

   "The buyers [made] their choice among the arrivals and [bargained] with them for a certain number of years and days. They then [took] them to the merchant, [paid] their passage and other debts and [received] from the government authorities a written document, which [made] the newcomers their property for a definite period."


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NOBILITY


   Many American genealogists have anticipated establishing a link to historic European royalty or nobility. Addleman decendants have also been motivated by romantic stories concerning a descent from German nobility. Perhaps these family stories took on a greater meaning because the German surname 'Adelman' was identical to a line of nobility in Adelmannsfelden. The following article was published in The Addleman Quarterly newsletter in 1988 and is probably just as relevant today.


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FAMILY TRADITION


   "Most Addleman descendants have heard stories about royalty in our German ancestry. We have heard "our immigrant ancestor was of royal blood " and the reason he came to America was that "he couldn't marry the girl he loved because she was a commoner." Other verbal histories stated, "We had a von in front of the name that was dropped when an Addleman traveled to America." One story passed down through the Warriors Mark, Andrew (1800) line, stated, "Be proud of your long Addleman nose, as it is a sign of old German royalty." As recent as the Addleman Western Roundup, August 6, 1988, one Addleman descendant from the Francis Price, Jr. (1881) line, stated "Addlemans have always had a 'presence or attitude' that others have noted and respected." These stories have helped create a strong interest in the Addleman family history and in genealogy.

   "In a 1984 telephone interview Sharon Morris described having found written evidence of Addleman royalty in the library at Wayne County, Indiana. She also mentioned having found a book on German lineage, but was unable to locate it in the unpacked boxes from her recent move. Margaret Addleman Florin [Blue, 1920] also discovered a book on lineage, written by Dr. Georg Sigmund Graf Adelmann v. Adelmannsfelden, Das Geschlecht der Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden, published in Ellwangen (Jagst) in 1948. This book . . . [illustrates] the von Adelmann coat of arms as well as giving the lineage through the twenty-second (1113-1523) generation. Margaret Florin researched another book written in German, Bernhard Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden, Humanift und Luthers Freund (1457-1523), by Franz Xaver Thurnhofer and published in 1900. Unfortunately, no researcher has been able to prove an American Addleman connection to this old German line. In her continuing attempts to clarify the "royalty issue," Margaret Florin visited Graf von Adelmann at Adelmannsfelden during her last research trip to Germany in 1979-80. She found the German word Graf means "count ." She learned that a different branch of Adelmanns originally held the title. An earlier Count, Bernhard von Adelmann, was a friend of Martin Luther and lost his title, money and lands when they were excommunicated by the Church for religious reasons [in 1561]. At some point either Bernhard or his descendants were offered a chance to buy back the title. Graf von Adelmann related, "They declined, so our line bought it [in 1882]."

   "Margaret described the older Count as being in his early to mid-sixties and a "very attractive and pleasant man." She saw him in Ludwigsburg, which is north of Stuttgart. Evidently he didn't have any direct descendants, so he adopted his nephew. The younger count (nephew) was in his twenties and lived at Adelmannsfelden. Margaret and Gus Florin were served wine by the younger Graf von Adelmann and talked with him for an hour. She was able to clarify the description of the title. The title holder is considered 'nobility' and not royalty.

   "Margaret suggested that our link to nobility may yet be discovered. Many of the von Adelmann descendants had large families. For example, Bernhard von Adelmann had fifteen children. Only the oldest male (progenitor) of each generation would inherit the title. . . . Another Addleman descendant commented, " The oldest son got the title, the next son was a soldier, the next was a priest and the others immigrated." I suppose if none of the above options were taken, one might also "have become a worker on the estate, a farmer or a tradesman.

   "In summary, various branches of the Addleman lines in America have all experienced similar "tales" of royalty having been linked to the Addleman name. Two Addleman researchers have found genealogy books revealing lines of descent from the German name 'Adelmann.' These names were associated with Adelmansfelden and held the title of count. The titled Adelmann line was considered nobility and not royalty. At this printing, no research has demonstrated Hans Michael Adelmann (1723) to have been directly related to any line of German nobility."

   The two German books referenced above on the von Adelmanns from Adelmannsfelden, can be found in several major libraries in the United States. They detailed the male pedigree of the two major von Adelmann families that were in residence at Adelmannsfelden. The following section discusses the Adelmann family at Adelmannsfelden and an important letter is reprinted that clarifies nobility, the location and the name.


ADELMANNSFELDEN


   "The mayor of the Community Adelmannsfelden gave me your genealogical question concerning the family Count Adelmann, asking me to answer it. I'm glad to do so, using my native language, supposing you will be able to have it translated or you yourself will understand it. I have to use some technical terms which I might fail to express correctly in a foreign language and then they might be misunderstood. Otherwise, if needed, you might make use of an expert help to make sure to read correctly.

   "The family of the Adelmanns who is still flourishing in several branches, is first mentioned in the 'annals' of the monastery of Ellwangen, written about 1136 and since that time they are continuously and authentically reported hereabouts, in the region of the old German duchy of Schwaben (Swabia) and in the later kingdom of Wuerttemberg. The Adelmanns belong to the so-called 'Uradel' (old aristocracy), to those noble families, who do not trace back their dignity to a document conveying the nobility (that is the so-called 'Schriftadel' or 'Briefadel') but to a 'knightly life of the ancestors ' from the beginnings. It is very probable that they have been ministerialists (ministeriale), that means vassals of the famous medieval imperial family of the Hohenstaufen. For instance in a document from 1236 a certain Siegfried von Adelmannsfelden is explicitly called "ministerialis imperii" and the lion in their coat of arms too points to the Staufic lions. In 1079 the Hohenstaufen have been invested with the duchy Swabia by the German emperor Heinrich IV (from the family of the Salier, known by his feud with Pope Gregor VII and his penitence walk to Canossa.). Since 1138 the Hohenstaufen are German empoerors themselves. Therefore it is very likely that the Adelmanns have come to this district about that time and have founded Adelmannsfelden building a big castle. Of course the community bears their name too. There are still many other symptoms and hints from that time, that I have to skip due to lack of space.

   "The dominium of Adelmannsfelden was rather extended and important according to those times. After the decline of the Hohenstaufen about 1250, the Adelmanns became dependants of the Abbey of Ellwangen (later on: principality). But already in the 14th century the members of the family left the open country and appeared among the nobility of the independant city-state (Freie Reichsstadt). Schwaebisch Gmuend and especially of the at that time powerful independant city-state Schwaebisch Hall. Hall was famous for its salt-mines (salt=Greek, hals, halos). Therefore 'Hall' as in Halle, Friedrichshall, Bad Reichenhall, Hallein and many other names of German towns) and as famous for its mints ("Heller" that is the penny coined in Hall; "Taler" = Dollar is the silver coin made in Joachimstal).

   "Some decades later; however, the Adelmanns became lords of manor again: In 1385 they acquired the Ellwangic castle of Neubronn. In 1407 castle and dominium Hohenstadt became their main residence where in the 18th century they finally were made count. They kept their territorial independance within the old Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges roemisches Reich deutscher Nation) up to the decline of this empire in the Napoleonic wars (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss from 2/25 1803). In 1805 they finally came under the sovereignty of the kindom of Wuerttemberg.

   "There we find members of the family continuously in high positions of Court and State, lately in the service of Prussia and the German State too. Among the elder generation we find one as a diplomat, an other as a governmental president of an administrative district and a third as a "Landeskonservator" of Wuerttemberg (that is an official who is in charge of taking care, preserving and restoring state monuments as castles, churches and so on. . .).

   "Close connections to their original residence, Adelmannsfelden, severed in the 14th century, were renewed not before the end of the 19th century. In 1882, Count Alfred of Adelmann repurchased the castle Adelmannsfelden from the government of Wuerttemberg. Since that time this branch of the family bears the title of Graf Adelmann von und zu Adelmannsfelden. Perhaps you will be interested to know that there is a very close relationship between these Adelmanns and Count Zeppelin, the constructor of the well known airships.

"Regarding now the connections between the origin of your family and the here mentioned Adelmanns, it seems to be very probable, almost positive, that there exist none of them. First: names as Adelmann, Edelmann, Edler, Idler and other variations of the name are not seldom found in Germany and are therefore not to be regarded as a hint at a relationship. Furthermore; as you may find in my statements, the family Count Adelmann belongs to the old nobility, excluding herewith with great probability connections with families who do not belong to the nobility. At least it was so till the end of the last century. Furthermore, as it is documentarily proved, members of the Adelmann family lived for centuries in the Swabian country only, just around Adelmannsfelden. All the locations cited in my letter are not distant. Your family however comes from the Palatinate, that had quite a different development. It was only natural that family connections, especially of the nobility were influenced by it too. It will not be possible and not even necessary to look into further details because my conclusions are very convincing. I would advise [you] to ask a historian who perhaps would explain some facts in my letter that I could only hint at in catch-words, and you as an American surely need more detail for a thorough understanding. There are many documents concerning the family Adelmann. According to their territorial autocracy up to 1803/05 and their belonging to the nobility of the "Kanton Kocher" who had an own directorium in the city-state (Reichsstadt) Esslingen, there have been written up many documents which are now in the State Archives of Wuerttemberg. Another source are the Wiener Staatsarchive, because the Habsburgs were the last emperors of the old German empire and the Reichshofrat in Vienna (Privy Counsellor) together with the Reichskammergericht (Supreme Court of Justice) had the functions of the highest court of justice, institutions, which the Adelmanns as 'sovereigns' had to deal with very often.

   "Castle Hohenstadt itself has a big archive, belonging to the count, but not open for public use. As far as I know, no one of these numerous documents shows that the Adelmanns had ever had any connection with the Palatinate or the Odenwald. This only confirms my opinion that there is no relationship between you and the Adelmanns here.

   "I hope that my letter meets your expectations for information, even if I had to disappoint you regarding an immediate advancement of your family research. I will be glad to help you if you have further questions. Hoping that the research for your ancestors may be successful."


   Dr. Hoennecke responded to an inquiry from William H. Eddleman in 1956 concerning the possibility of a connection between the Palatinate-Odenwald Edelmans and those from Adelmannsfelden. He summarized the von Adelmann history and revealed they earned their nobility through 'knightly endeavors' and were primarily ministers to the Hohenstaufens. They have always lived in the old Duchy of Swabia, which later became Wuerttemberg. They lost the castle in the 14th century and another branch of the family repurchased it from the Wuerttemberg government in 1882. He concluded that the Count von Adelmann family is very well documented and it is extremely doubtful that any relationship might exist between Adelmannsfelden and the Edelmans from the Palatinate or the Odenwald.

   Margaret Addleman Florin (Blue, 1920) made several trips to West Germany in the 1970's and visited Adelmannsfelden, as well as Sonderriet. She purchased a small one-page brochure on Adelmannsfelden. Margaret summarized the contents: "Adelmannsfelden was recognized and granted by the church in 1361. It was later sold to the Bishop of Ellwangen in 1380. It came under the Vohensteins in 1493. In 1561, Bernhard Adelmann was excommunicated by the church because he was Martin Luther's friend (the church took back the title and property). It was vacant for a number of years. In 1829, it went to the government of Wuerttemberg. It was purchased in 1882 by von den Grafen Adelmann zurückerworben."

   In spite of the appeal towards the 'American Addleman oral tradition,' no evidence supports the popular theory that the Wertheim Adelmanns might have descended from a non-titled sibling. The most popular theory has been that the connection might have been from the Bernhard von Adelmann line that lost the title in 1561. It was reported he had fifteen children and it seemed possible that the Wertheim Adelmanns might have descended from this progenitor. Even though Dr. Hoennecke's letter was written in 1956, it is still valid and the conclusions most likely apply to the Wertheim Adelmanns as well as the Palatinate/Odenwald Edelmans. Erich Langguth stated, " . . . I will only say briefly that I don't believe there is a connection between the farmer Adelmanns with the family of the Counts of Adelmannsfelden. There were a great many people named ADELMANN in the villages here even before 1550. I will tell you more about this later."

   In an August, 1990 letter, Erich Langguth wrote the following:

   "I consider the story circulating in America that the Adelman family was of noble descent to be merely a 'nice legend.' It can't be proven, first of all because one would have to be able to research much further back -- into the 14th or even the 13th century. This is impossible because of the lack of church records and other sources. But if you consider how many families also have names like Kaiser (emperor), König (king), Fürst (prince), Graf (count or earl) Herzog (duke), etc., there would be greater cause for thinking these descended from the high nobility -- which is completely ruled out, since the high nobility has been adequately researched for the 13th to 15th centuries.

   " . . . So, in conclusion, I don't believe that these discussions can lead anywhere; they remain more or less speculative. Therefore it is better, in my opinion, to speak of the ADELMANNs settled in the Tauber area as a firmly established family whose roots go back a long time here. In my letter of 7 September 1989, I had already indicated that ADELMANNs can be proven to have existed in great numbers before 1550. The earliest representatives I know of are Lorenz Adelmann in Sonderriet (1551), Matthäus Adelman (1562), Kilian and Michael Adelmann in Sachsenhausen (1544), Valentin (Velten) Adelmann in Eichel (1541). In Eichel near Wertheim, there is even mention of a Cuncz ALHALM in 1359; perhaps the name Adelmann could even have developed from this name form (?). At any rate, the Old High German adal (clan, family) in combined forms has a connection with alah (sactum, temple), as shown in Max Gottschald, Deutsche Namenkunde (Munich/Berlin 1942), page 148."

   A few enthusiastic researchers/authors have prematurely claimed Addleman descent from the Count von Adelmann line of German nobility. It can only be restated here that no valid evidence has supported the theory and oral tradition of a connection between the American Addlemans and Adelmannsfelden. Perhaps future research will provide more facts from which one can render a more definitive conclusion to this fascinating theory.


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OTHER NOBILITY


   Dr. Riley R. Eddleman believes that two different Edelmans earned Coats of Arms in Switzerland. He stated, "His [Claus Edelman (1357)] grandson, Andreas, born in 1407, was given a Coat of Arms for creating stained glass windows in the great church in Basel. . . . A second Coat of Arms of an Eddleman [Edelman] family is the Bull's Head. Tradition has it that two teenagers received this honor in 1227 from King Frederick for saving the Swiss children from capture by slave traders during the Childrens' Crusade. Since only one Eddleman [Edelman] family is found in early Basel Stadt records, I believe the winners of both Coats of Arms were from the same line." Dr. Eddleman was not able to validate the above information and assumed it to be true. He included a copy of both Coats of Arms in the beginning of his book. He finally commented, "I hope some genealogist will go back another 130 years or more and can prove this. I hope history will prove my assumption."


ROYAL ANCESTRY


   June Niewoehner (Gold, 1919) provided information on her Courtney (Courtenay) French/English collateral line. They didn't merge with the American Addlemans until 113 years after Hans Michael Adelmann emigrated to America. The following was originally printed in The Addleman Quarterly:

   "Matilda Jane Courtney (1842), an American descendant of English Royalty, lived in Whitewater, Wayne Co., IN, and married Flavius Josephus (Joseph) Addleman (Gold) on 29 Oct 1865. A Courtney American ancestor, "Mrs. Lowry, . . . traced the North American branch of the family back to Ireland during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, when a Courtenay was granted 2,000 acres of land (Sunday Independent; June 19, 1977, p. 12)." June Courtney Niewoehner (Gold, 1919) provided newspaper clippings and excerpts from the book, Battle at Powderham, written by C. J. Creed at the Gables, Broadoak and printed for The King's Army (1976).

   "Originally of French origin, the Courtenays came to England in 1151, and were granted honours in Devon by King Henry II. ["The English line began with Reginald de Courtenay, . . . who left his native land and came to England with Eleanor of Aquitaine, bride of Henry II (Exeter News; June 27, 1977, p. 6)."] By marriage and inheritance they acquired considerable estates, and eventually inherited the Earldom of Devon from cousins, the De Redvers, who died out in 1293. From then on, for some 250 years, the Courtenays were very powerful indeed, numbering in their ranks an Archbishop of Canterbury and a founder Knight of the Garter.

   " . . . Powerderham Castle has belonged to the Courtenay family for more than five hundred years and is far older than one might suppose from its present appearance. . . . The Castle was built between 1390 and 1420 by Sir Philip Courtenay, 6th son of Hugh, 2nd Earl of Devon and his wife Margaret, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and granddaughter of Edward I (Creed, 1976: p. 32)."

   Courtenay royalty was not all powerful when politics and The King imprisoned several in the Tower of London. "Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, was beheaded on Tower Hill on December 9th, 1538. . . . King Henry VIII died on January 28, 1547 (Sampford Parish Church; June 19, 1977)."

   A Courtenay European tour was arranged in 1977. "This was not so much a sightseeing tour as a pilgrimage which came about through the painstaking research of Henry Courtenay, Professor of Economics at the University of Indiana. [He] went to tremendous pains to contact all who bore the name Courtenay in the United States. On a visit to Chicago he carefully collated from all the American telephone directories, those with his name. Then he contacted them and eventually this journey was arranged (Exeter News, June 27, 1977: p. 6)."

   June and Robert Niewoehner went on the 1977 tour. June is the great-granddaughter of Matilda Jane Courtney Addleman. June, a genealogist for some time, has researched and accumulated much historical information on several branches of her family, in addition to the Addlemans."

   Other Addleman descendants have also revealed their connections to European lines of nobility or royalty. Needless to say, these revelations are frequently lengthy, circuitous and difficult to prove. As this book is primarily about the Addleman family, I will not try to list these others.


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SUMMARY


   This chapter began with a historical review of early Germany between 1000 and 1800. The five main Duchies that existed during the Holy Roman Empire were briefly discussed, along with there transition into Princely States. The political structure was discussed as the princes continuously struggled with the emperor, resulting in a power struggle that lasted centuries. The princes eventually gained dominance resulting in very powerful local states. This prevented Germany from growing at a national level. During the 13th to 19th centuries, Germany was essentually a group of states that lacked effective national leadership. Napoleon eventually conquered Germany and accomplished what several German emperors had been trying to do for years. He changed many antiquated systems and consolidated many of the smaller independent states into more functional states. Of course, Alsace-Lorraine was lost to France in the process.

   The early German society was discussed with its highly structured levels of nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants. Each category had a high and low group. Obviously, the nobility was the most powerful group with the largest participation within the lower-nobility group. The clergy was considered the leading group of the times and one gained entry through intelligence and education. The burghers were recognized at the local town levels and were considered the low end of the ruling or decision-making process. The older and more established burghers controlled the political and economic changes within a town. They frequently served as mayor or on the town counsel. A burgher's status was reflected by the size and economic wealth of the village, town or city. Theoretically the more affluent and upwardly-mobil burghers could purchase their way into lower-nobility, but this was infrequent. The peasant was at the bottom. Even this position was considered desirable by the less fortunate laborers, live-in servants and farmhands. To them, it appeared that the peasant was a man of responsibility over land and livestock. This category also had wide interpretations as a peasant could have been either a 'free' (come and go -- work a fixed number of days on the lord's land) or a 'surf' who was bound to the land. The majority of the people were peasants or in lower categories and lived in the country.

   Early Germany was in a long-term decline that resulted in a number of wars and struggles. Religious tension progressed when Martin Luther proclaimed his ideas in the 16th century and after the Guttenberg Bible was printed. Societal and religious stresses erupted with the Reformation, which came to an end in 1555. Each prince was firmly in control and could dictate which religion his people were to practice. The Thirty Years War began in 1618-1648 and resulted in almost no religious changes. The bubonic plague raced across Europe in 1634. In the early 18th century, German society was ready to explode. The individuals in this German society were extremely frustrated due to a lack of personal and public freedoms. When the news of William Penn's experimental 'free society' was communicated, the German people were ready to participate.

   Most emigrants who immigrated to Pennsylvania were from the Palatinate in southwestern Germany. This was primarilly from the left (western) side of the Rhine river but also included people on the right side. William H. Eddleman (Mass.) researched Edelmans from the Palatinate and the Odenwald. He included the Wertheim Adelmans but eventually determined they were not part of the greater Edelman family. He also tried to determine a potential relationship to the Count Adelmanns of Adelmannsfelden (Swabia), but was advised in a 1956 letter from Dr. Hoennecke that it was highly unlikely. William H. Eddleman researched eight groups of Edelman emigrants who departed between 1730 and 1754. Many of these were found in the records from Beerfelden, which included the communities of Finkenbach, Gammelsbach, Ober and Unter Sensbach, etc. A more southern group came from Wuerttemberg, now called Alsace-Lorraine, France. David and Anna Maria Edelman, Philip Jacob and Margaretha Edelman (and their son, Baltasar) and Anna Elizabeth Edelman Bauser and her husband Mathes Bauser (Bewser) departed Cleeburg on the Ship Richard & Elizabeth and arrived in Philadelphia on 28 September 1733. This latter group is of particular interest because they might be the origin of Daniel Addleman's line. (Daniel Adleman lived in Baltimore County, Maryland (ca 1750) and in Loudoun County, Virginia (ca 1765) with his wife Elizabeth and their children -- Philip, John (1769) and Hannah.)

   At one time the Wertheim County Adelmanns lived near the Tauber River, and were from the state of Bavaria, which was earlier known as the Duchy of Franconia. It was a small Protestant state that was surrounded by larger Catholic powers. Several Wertheimer Adelmanns emigrated but only one was the progenitor of one branch of the American Addlemans. Hans Michel Adelmann emigrated on the Ship Phoenix, and arrived in Philadelphia on 22 November 1752. Various documents clarify that he was the son of a full burgher from the town of Sonderreit. He was Protestant, single, very poor and twenty-nine years old when he departed. He was the eighth child and the fourth son to be born to Hans Martin and Margaretha Adelmann, who had a total of ten children. Only five of these siblings lived to adulthood. Recent research (1989-90) has clarified much about Hans Michael Adelmann and his family. Research has shown the Wertheim County Adelman paternal line in Nassig to be: Yohann Michael (1723), Yohann Martin-A (1682), Yohann Sebastian-B (1648), Veit-C (1607), Alexander-D (ca 1560) and Jörg-E (ca 1520).

   The discussion of nobility has alway been intriguing to most Americans. Various branches of Hans Michael Adelmann's American descendants have had a verbal tradition of there having been some early connection to nobility. This may have resulted from the similarity of the surname to the Count von Adelmanns of Adelmannsfelden. An important 1956 letter clarified why the Palatinate and Odenwald Edelmans were most likely not related to this line of nobility. Using the same logic and rationale, we can no doubt assume that this applies to the Wertheim Adelmanns as well. Eventually, a later line of American Addlemans (Gold) was able to prove a connection to the English Courtenay nobility of Powerderham Castle through a collateral line.


[The above was transferred from the computerized version of The American Addlemans, the 1991 book published by Robert P. Addleman through Closson Press. The book version was heavily footnoted but was not transferred to the web site.]


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